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Question:

Unit V Research Discussion Board

by | Jun 5, 2022 | fresh

Please make sure that it  is your own work and not copy and paste off of some one else work because the professor will check. This is a DBA course and needs to be done on this level. Please watch out for spelling and grammar errors. Please use the APA 7th format edition. Please read the study guide.
Book reference: Gliner, J. A., Morgan, G. A., Leech, N. L. (2017). Research methods in applied settings: An integrated approach to design and analysis (3rd ed.)Routledgehttps://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781317526896 
 In your own words, describe the primary purpose of inferential statistics, and explain what you believe are the advantages and limitations of inferential statistics. Use examples throughout your discussion.

RCH 8301, Quantitative Research Methods 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

6. Create research questions appropriate for a selected research method and design.
6.1 Investigate a research topic, and include appropriate research questions.

7. Formulate hypotheses appropriate for a selected research method and design.

7.1 Design hypotheses that are suitable for a selected research method and design.

Course/Unit
Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity

6.1, 7.1

Unit Lesson
Chapter 16, pp. 281–299
Chapter 17, pp. 302–315
Unit V Annotated Bibliography

Required Unit Resources

Chapter 16: Making Inferences from Sample Data I: The Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Approach, pp.
281–299

Chapter 17: Making Inferences from Sample Data II: The Evidence-Based Approach, pp. 302–315

Unit Lesson

Making Inferences from Sample Data

Working with an entire population is not possible for most researchers, so a sample of the population is
typically studied, and a conclusion about the general population is inferred from the results of the research.
The textbook outlines the underlying concepts of devising the inferences from sample data using null
hypothesis significance testing and the evidence-based approach. In research, the term hypothesis is defined
as the predictor statement or assumption, which focuses on providing the concrete overview about the
expected happenings as a result of performing the research (Burns & Burns, 2000). In short, hypotheses
speculate about the outcome of the research.

The Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) is one
approach to reporting the outcomes of statistical tests. NHST
has been the generally accepted method to guide inferences
from data analysis (Gliner et al., 2017). Under NHST, a null
hypothesis is the tentative statement that negates the existence
of association or relationship between the variables; in contrast,
an alternative hypothesis signifies the presence of a
relationship between the target variables. The null hypothesis is
denoted by H0 whereas Ha refers to alternative hypothesis. A
null hypothesis is considered non-directional and assumes the
existence of difference between variables, but it is not
concerned about the direction. Thus, it is considered a two-
tailed test. An alternative hypothesis is further categorized as
directional and non-directional hypothesis. A directional
hypothesis, indicated by H, is termed as a predictor statement

UNIT V STUDY GUIDE

Data Analysis: Making Inferences
from Sample Data

Research process sampling from a target
population.
(Iamnee, n.d.)

RCH 8301, Quantitative Research Methods 2

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

related to the researcher’s perception about the results. Since a directional hypothesis only looks at one
direction (i.e., greater than a value or less than a value), it is also referred to as a one-tailed test.

Research population is another important concept, which is defined as the focus group of a scientific query
(Kumar, 2010). It is further categorized as theoretical and accessible population. Theoretical population is a
broader group upon which the research conclusion is generalized. It is also termed as the target population of
a research study. Accessible population is the derived subset of the theoretical population who participates in
the study and helps the researcher in drawing a conclusion, which can be further applied to that group; this is
usually referred to as a study population.

When a researcher selects a research topic, he or she must first identify his or her target population. For
example, the target population is the entire group that the researcher is intending to research and analyze. A
company customer base can be considered as the target population when determining if a new product
concept might be successful. The accessible population would then be that portion of the target population to
which the researcher has reasonable access. Of the entire company customer base, there is a smaller
accessible population who responds to surveys or participates in focus groups.

Inferential statistics undertakes the process of making inferences by evaluating the data which has been
collected from the population. A Type I error occurs when a researcher rejects the null hypothesis when it is
true. Alpha (α) represents the likelihood of making a Type I error, which can be lowered by reducing the value
of alpha. In contrast, a Type II error occurs when a researcher fails to reject the null hypothesis when it is not
true. The dependency factor of this error is test power, which is referred to as beta (β), and can be avoided by
increasing the sample size of the study.

Statistical power is the likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis and accepting the alternative hypothesis
when the alternative hypothesis is found to be true. The statistical power can be increased by using a larger
sample size, a higher significance level, or larger difference values and opting for a one-tailed directional
hypothesis. Statistical decision-making is another vital concept, which is defined as a rational procedure of
collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data through the inclusion of statistical techniques and measures to
extract the meaningful insights from it and speculate about the population. Researchers often use a power
analysis program, such as G*Power, to determine the sample size needed. G*Power is a widely used tool to
compute statistical power for many different tests (Faul et al., 2007).

Significance testing of a null hypothesis entails numerous criticisms and problems. In reality, the null
hypothesis possesses a false nature. The p-value helps determine the significance of the results. A small p-
value (typically ≤ 0.05) indicates strong evidence against the null hypothesis, so the null hypothesis would be
rejected. A large p-value (> 0.05) indicates weak evidence against the null hypothesis, so the null hypothesis
would not be rejected. Similarly, a small p-value depicts unlikeliness of the data under a null hypothesis. A
difference between statistical and scientific significance is another aspect. The concept of real error cannot
only be based on statistical error due to it being a very small component of it. Lastly, if the p-value is small, it
does not validate the probability of being wrong.

For example, suppose a pizza delivery restaurant claims their delivery times are 30 minutes or less on
average, and we want to test their claim. We would conduct a hypothesis test since we believe the null
hypothesis, H0, which is that the delivery time of 30 minutes is incorrect. Your alternative hypothesis (Ha) is
that the delivery time is greater than 30 minutes. You randomly sample some delivery times, run the data
through statistical analysis software, and identify that the p-value turns out to be 0.013, which is less than
0.05. Since the null hypothesis is typically rejected when the probability is less than 0.05, we conclude that
the pizza delivery times are more than 30 minutes on average.

Evidence-Based Approach

The second approach is evidence-based, which entails the formulation process of the research question and
its respective design based on multiple aspects, perspectives, and resources. There are three evidence-
based methods that help interpret research results, and these methods use confidence intervals, effect sizes,
and meta-analysis.

The purpose of computing a statistic by extracting a random sample from the population is to obtain the
approximation about the population mean (Creswell, 2014). The extent to which the computed sample

RCH 8301, Quantitative Research Methods 3

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

statistic estimates the value of population is always an unanswered question. In such a situation, confidence
intervals play a major role in providing a range of values, which ensure the high likelihood of the population
parameters.

Confidence level forms the basis of the confidence interval, which is usually set at 95% but can be either 90%
or 99%. Why is this significant? With the selection of a sample from the same population at different
occasions and with the creation of occasional interval estimates, 95% of the cases will contain the true
population mean. In other words, it can be stated that the inverse of Alpha is the confidence at 1- alpha level.

Furthermore, effect size of a study refers to the magnitudinal
quantification of a phenomenon so as to measure the relative
strength of the relationship; in other words, effect size can be
defined as a standard measure that depicts the difference
between two groups. The greater the difference, the greater
the effect size. Standardized effect sizes are “effect sizes that
can be computed regardless of the specific measurement
scale used in the study” (Gliner et al., 2017, p. 307). This
includes the r family of effect size measures, which contains
measures of association, and the d family, which contains
measures of the differences between groups. Examples of the
r family are the Pearson product-moment correlation

coefficient (r), the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (rs, which is pronounced as rho), and the
Kendall rank-order correlation coefficient (T, which is pronounced as tau). Examples of the d family are
Cohen’s d, Glass’s delta (∆), Hedges’s g, and the odds ratio. For effect sizes of the r-family, Cohen (1988)
views the values of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 as small, medium, and large, respectively. For effect sizes of the d
family, the values 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 represent small, medium, and large effect sizes, respectively (Cohen,
1988). Furthermore, this unit’s textbook readings discuss details regarding the computational formulas and
interpretative aspects of the effect sizes for further understanding. Lastly, meta-analysis is topic fit for review
as it follows the approach of combining the results from different studies by performing relevant statistical
analysis procedures in order to identify the underlying common truth.

In short, this unit requires extra attention in order to understand the principles behind each of the statistical
concepts, which have been discussed in this unit’s textbook readings. After going through all of the topics,
you will be able to obtain a better understanding of the two basic approaches of drawing inferences from the
data, which include null hypothesis significance testing and the evidence-based approach. Furthermore, this
unit will help you to understand the differences between null and alternative hypotheses, Type I and Type II
errors, the problems with null hypothesis significance testing, confidence intervals, effect sizes, and the
distinguishing factors among r and d effect sizes. All of the concepts will improve your knowledge base along
with giving you a practical insight toward the application of these concepts in research.

References

Burns, R. B., & Burns, R. B. (2000). Introduction to research methods (4th ed.). Sage.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches.

SAGE.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis

program for the social, behavioural, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods,
39(2), 175–191. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2007-11814-002

Gliner, J. A., Morgan, G. A., & Leech, N. L. (2017). Research methods in applied settings: An integrated

approach to design and analysis (3rd ed.). Routledge.

Illustration of a statistical analysis of people
and population.
(Lacroix, n.d.)

RCH 8301, Quantitative Research Methods 4

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

Iamnee. (n.d.). Research process sampling from a target population. Infochart, chart (ID 81702930)
[Illustration]. Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-research-process-
sampling-target-population-business-marketing-social-selecting-sample-elements-to-conduct-
image81702930

Kumar, R. (2010). Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. SAGE.

Lacroix, A. (n.d.). People analysis (ID 85123566) [Illustration]. Dreamstime.

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-people-analysis-statistical-population-
image85123566

Learning Activities (Nongraded)

Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.

Review the “Interpretation Questions” and “Application Problems” at the end of Chapters 16 and 17.

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V
Unit Lesson
Making Inferences from Sample Data
Evidence-Based Approach
References

Learning Activities (Nongraded)

2020 Success Center

Citation Guide
Based on the Publication Manual of the American

Psychological Association—7th Edition

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 2

Citation Guide – 7th Edition

This document covers certain citation formats addressed in the 7th edition of the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) but is not a complete
guide. Should you have any questions, please contact the CSU Success Center by email at
[email protected] or by phone at (877) 875-0533.

For all rules and requirements of APA, please refer to the 7th edition of the Publication
Manual of the American Psychological Association, which can be purchased through the
American Psychological Association at https://apastyle.apa.org/products/publication-manual-
7th-edition/.

The Writing Center also provides an accompanying tutorial for the CSU Citation

Guide. This tutorial provides further explanation on several APA formatting topics:

Citation Guide Tutorial.

mailto:[email protected]

https://apastyle.apa.org/products/publication-manual-7th-edition/

https://apastyle.apa.org/products/publication-manual-7th-edition/

http://columbiasouthern.adobeconnect.com/citationguidetutorial7/

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 3

Contents

What is APA format and why is it used? ………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

Citing Sources …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

Citations in In-text …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

Examples of in-text citations ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

Example of block quote in-text citation …………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Reference List …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Examples of reference list entries …………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Selecting Appropriate Research Sources ………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

Formatting ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

Document formatting in APA style ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

Steps for document formatting ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

Specific formatting steps for documents …………………………………………………………………………………. 16

Library Resources and Services for CSU Students ……………………………………………………………………. 17

Sample Essay ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Sample Research Paper ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 4

What is APA Format and Why is it Used?

The American Psychological Association is a professional organization representing

psychologists in the United States. APA format is a set of rules developed to assist with writing

and the citing of sources. Following the rules laid out in the Publication Manual helps to

prevent plagiarism and acknowledges the original author of the information used. It is meant

to provide a concise and standardized citation format for written assignments (such as essays,

research papers, and article critiques, among others) and is used for all Columbia Southern

University courses.

In educational institutions, academic integrity is an area of great concern. Academic

integrity refers to being intellectually honest by “avoiding… cheating, plagiarism, self-

plagiarism, and/or poor scholarship” (Columbia Southern University, 2019, p.28). Adhering to

APA guidelines can prevent academic integrity violations (especially plagiarism) by clearly

marking which words and ideas belong to outside sources. Committing an academic integrity

violation of any kind can have serious consequences.

Plagiarism is the act of stealing someone else’s work and passing it off as one’s own. It

can be deliberate or accidental; deliberate plagiarism includes directly copying, summarizing, or

paraphrasing a source without giving credit to the author or putting it in quotation marks. This

type of plagiarism also includes turning in a paper that has been bought, written by another

student, or copied from another source. Accidental plagiarism is when a writer uses another

author’s thoughts or ideas without realizing credit must be provided. This includes working in

groups and submitting the same answers as other students, forgetting to place quotation marks

around a direct quotation, omitting an in-text citation for a summary or a paraphrase, and

omitting an in-text citation for the ideas of another writer. Accidental plagiarism also includes

submitting an assignment that has already been previously submitted in another course.

Unfortunately, both types of plagiarism can result in a failing grade, suspension from the

university, or even expulsion.

There are a few ways APA can help students avoid plagiarism. The primary way to avoid

it is to cite any ideas that are not one’s own. Citations help readers to locate the sources used in

a paper. Citations should not only be used for direct quotes, but they should also be provided

when information is paraphrased or summarized from another author. Paraphrasing a source’s

material is a good way to avoid copying directly from an outside source and possibly being

reprimanded. If any questions or concerns about APA format, please feel free to contact the

CSU Success Center by email at [email protected] or by phone at (877) 875-

0533.

mailto:[email protected]

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 5

Citing Sources

When writing a paper in APA 7th edition style, there are two specific ways to cite the
information that is used: within the text and in the reference list at the end of the paper.
Citations are utilized when a phrase, a piece of specific information, or a sequence of sentences
is drawn from an outside source. To meet APA requirements specified for CSU written essay
responses, in-text citations and a reference list must be included if any outside sources are
used. For formal papers, follow all guidelines listed in this handout. For all rules and
requirements of APA, please refer to the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association, which can be purchased through the American Psychological
Association at https://apastyle.apa.org/products/publication-manual-7th-edition/.

In-text Citations

 An in-text citation should be used when a phrase, a piece of specific information, or an
idea is drawn from an outside source.

 In-text citations are also required when putting the author’s information in your own
words (paraphrasing).

 Citing helps to prevent plagiarism, and it acknowledges the original author of the
information used.

 In-text citations and reference citations must always correspond; each in-text citation
must have a matching reference citation and vice-versa. APA uses the author-year
method of citation.

 It is standard practice for the period at the end of the sentence to be placed after the
last parentheses of the in-text citation. An exception is made if inserting a direct quote
that contains more than 40 words; in this instance, the period is placed directly before
the in-text citation.

Paraphrased Information
When paraphrasing or summarizing a source, provide the author’s last name and year of
publication (separated by a comma). Page and paragraph numbers are not required when you
are paraphrasing information. However, be sure to consult with your faculty member to
determine his or her preference on adding page numbers in citations.

Direct Quotations
If utilizing a direct quote, this must be indicated by placing the passage in quotation marks.
Further, the specific page or paragraph number is always required. If there is no page or
paragraph number, as is the case for many electronic sources, provide a section heading or
other label to indicate the passage the quote was borrowed from.

For additional information, please see the Writing Center’s In-text Citations Tutorial.

https://apastyle.apa.org/products/publication-manual-7th-edition/

http://columbiasouthern.adobeconnect.com/in-textcitations7/

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 6

Examples of in-text citations

Reference
Type

Examples of in-text citations

Paraphrased
information from
one author

It has been found … can be concluded (Simpson, 2007).

According to Simpson (2007), … can cause problems.

Other people say… based on Simpson (2007).

Paraphrased
information from
two authors

There are … at this point (Stemmer & Tisdale, 2008).

Stemmer and Tisdale (2008) mention … a set of styles.

This plan will … according to Stemmer and Tisdale (2008).

Paraphrased
information from
three or more
authors

When stating…. can be located (Padgett et al., 2004).

Padgett et al. (2004) explain … is further noted.

Direct quotation less
than 40 words

“It is amazing…with confidence” (OSHA, 2010, p. 121).

According to Davis and Dudley (2005), “We are…to save” (para. 5).

“What is lost…come at all” (Ingram et al., 2001, pp. 8-9).

Paraphrased
information with no
author listed

When using data … can be seen (“Title of Document,” 2003).

If information is … was conquered (“Driving and Talking,” 2004).

According to “Leadership Versus Management” (2001), … is an art form.

Information from a
secondary source

It can be found … in Stemmer’s work (as cited in Pratt, 2008).

According to Stemmer’s work (as cited in Pratt, 2008), “…” (p. 65).

**Add the page number if you use a direct quote from Stemmer found in Pratt’s work.

Information via
personal
communication

J. M. Newsome (personal communication, May 30, 2008) expressed …

…of time (V. P. DeLuca, personal communication, November 9, 2007).

**Personal communication should only be listed in the in-text, not on the reference list.

Information found in
classical works

…will have everlasting life (King James Bible, 1769/2017, John 3:16).

…as read in the Bible in John 3:16 (King James Bible, 1769/2017).

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 7

Direct Quotations of 40 or more words
Block quotations (quotes that contain 40 words or more) are formatted differently, as they
have no quotation marks. In formal writing, block quotations are acceptable, although their use
should not be in excess. While block quotes are accepted in formal writing, the use of them in
essay responses is not encouraged due to the length of the assignment. Block quotations are
indented an additional .5” and double spaced. The period is placed before the citation.

Block Quotation Example

The solutions proposed by a number of advocacy groups underscore this interest in

political and cultural change. A report outlined trends that may have contributed to the

childhood obesity crisis.

This includes food advertising for children as well as a reduction in physical

education classes and after-school athletic programs, an increase in the availability

of sodas and snacks in public schools, the growth in the number of fast-food outlets,

and the increasing number of highly processed high-calorie and high-fat grocery

products. (Kaiser, 2004, pp. 1-2)

Reference List

The reference list is of the utmost importance, as it allows the reader to access the sources
cited in the in-text and enables the student writer to give credit where credit is due. For this
reason, the references should contain accurate information, as well as proper punctuation and
spelling. References will follow the conclusion of any APA document. For each reference listed,
there will be at least one corresponding in-text citation in the document. Examples of reference
source formatting can be found on the following pages.

 If there is a digital object identifier (DOI) available, include that in the reference. The DOI
is precisely used to give the reader information about where the document can be
found on the Internet. The DOI is typically located near the copyright notice on the first
page of the electronic journal article. In the case that there is no DOI, provide the
homepage URL of the web page where you found the article. (Please note the DOI,
when available, is required in doctoral courses.)

 Multiple citations containing the same author and year should first be listed
chronologically by the specific date (with newer sources being listed first) and then
alphabetically by the title. A lowercase a, b, c, etc. should be placed after the year to
distinguish between the entries. This is also used in the in-text citations. For example:

Smith, J. (2013a, March 8). How to groom cats. Garden Press.

Smith, J. (2013b, January 20). How to groom dogs. Garden Press.

For additional information, please see the Writing Center’s References Tutorial.

http://columbiasouthern.adobeconnect.com/references7/

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 8

Examples of reference list entries

Reference
List

What to Include Information and Examples

General
Referencing
Information

 When listing the author on the reference list, the

last name should be first, followed by the

author’s first and middle (if applicable) initials.

For example: Smith, J. R.

 References should be placed in alphabetical order

by the first author’s last name, by associates (if

the work is authorized by an organization), or by

anonymous. Anonymous should only be listed as

the author if it is signed as such.

 If a particular person did not create the document

being cited, use the organization that created the

document.

 The document title can be substituted as the

author if no author is provided. In this case, the

first word of the title will dictate the alphabetical

placement (“a,” “an,” and “the” notwithstanding).

 The letters “n.d.” (no date) can be utilized if the

source listed has no listed date. Substitute “n.d.”

where the date would normally go.

For example: Smith, R. T. (n.d.)…

 Professional credentials, such as Ph. D., should

not be used on the reference page.

 References beginning with numerals should be

alphabetized based on the spelling of the numeral

 States should be identified with their two letter

abbreviations, such as AL, MS, and NY.

 Spell out cities and countries outside the United

States.

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 9

Reference
List

What to Include Information and Examples

Books

 For titles on the reference list, only capitalize the

first word of the title, proper nouns, and the first

word after a colon or dash.

 Journal articles and books only require the year,

rather than the entire date.

 Book titles should be italicized within the

reference list.

Book
Author(s). (date of
publication). Book
title. Publisher.

Book Examples:

Erickson, C. K. (2007). The science of addiction: From

neurobiology to treatment. W.W. Norton &

Company.

Morenberg, M. (2014). Doing grammar (5th ed.).

Oxford University Press.

Periodicals:
Journals,
magazines,
and
newspaper
articles

 For the name of the actual publication the article

appears in (journal, magazine, or newspaper), use

standard title capitalization. Capitalize all words

with the exception of conjunctions, articles, and

short propositions; however, capitalize all words

that have four letters or more.

 Magazine articles, newsletters, and newspaper

articles require the listing of the entire date when

available (month or month and day).

For example: (2001, May) or (2001, May 2)

 Journal articles and books only require the year.

 For journal articles, there is no need to write out

the words volume, issue, p., or pp. The order of

the numbers indicate what they represent.

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 10

Reference
List

What to Include Information and Examples

Periodicals:
Journals,
magazines,
and
newspaper
articles
continued

Author(s). (date of
publication). Article
title. Journal Title,
volume (issue), page
numbers.
Retrieval
information.

*Retrieval
information for
online sources can
be either a URL or a
DOI. If neither is
available, treat the
journal like a print
source.

Journal Examples:

Clark, L. B. (2019, April). Education as property.

Virginia Law Review, 105(2), 397-424.

Rouw, R., & Erfanian, M. (2018, March). A large-scale

study of misophonia. Journal of Clinical

Psychology, 74(3), 453-479.

doi:10.1002/jclp.22500.

Smith, J. E. (2003). Addiction and environmental

change. Journal of Personality and Social

Psychology, 66(3), 47-68.

http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/psp/

Websites

 Do not add a period after the retrieval

information (URL or DOI). Otherwise, the

period might be mistaken as part of the URL.

 The URL can either be an active hyperlink

(blue and underlined), or the hyperlink

formatting can be removed.

 To ensure accuracy, always test the URL prior

to submission.

 Italicize the titles of webpages.

Author(s). (date of

publication). Title of

page. Retrieval

information

(including direct

URL)

Website Examples:

Cain, A., & Burris, M. (1999). Investigation of the use

of mobile phones while driving.

http://www.cutr.eng.usf.edu/oldpubs

/mobile_phone.pdf

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 11

Reference
List

What to Include Information and Examples

Websites
continued

Starbucks Coffee Company. (n.d.). Starbucks social

impact. https://starbucks.com/responsibility

If there is not an author listed, you can use the

company that created the website as an

organizational author.

PowerPoint
slides

 The PowerPoint format description in brackets is

used because the format is something out of the

ordinary.

 The title of the PowerPoint should be italicized.

Author(s). (date of
publication). Title of
slideshow [Format
of document].
Retrieval
information

PowerPoint Examples:

Sprott, J. C. (2000). Is global warming for real?

[PowerPoint slides].

http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/

lectures.htm#warming

How to succeed in business [PowerPoint slides].

(n.d.). http://online.columbiasouthern.edu

/webapps.jsp

If there is no author, list the title of the document in

the author’s position.

Personal
conversations,
emails,
interviews,
and letters

Do not include on
the reference page.

Due to retrieval inability, personal conversations,
emails, interviews, and letters should not be listed on
the reference page. Instead, cite these as a personal
communication in the in-text. For an example, see
the chart on page 6 (information via personal
communication).

http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/%20lectures.htm#warming

http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/%20lectures.htm#warming

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 12

Selecting Appropriate Research Sources

In academic writing, only certain types of resources are considered acceptable. All sources
mentioned in this guide are sources that are considered to be academic. If you have any
questions regarding acceptable and unacceptable sources or how different types of sources can
be used, please contact the CSU Library. Additional information about the CSU Library can be
found on page 17 of this guide.

Formatting

When writing any type of formal paper, the document should have in-text citations and a
reference list, and should be formatted in accordance to APA format. The following are specific
instructions on how to set up a document in APA format using Microsoft Word.

Document formatting in APA style

General
Formatting

Information

Margins  All margins (top, bottom, and sides) should be set at one inch.

 Microsoft Word allows the user to set the margin at a default of

one inch on all sides.

Page Numbers  Page numbers should be listed in the top right corner of the

document, beginning on the title page.

Alignment/
Line Spacing

 All documents following APA guidelines are required to be flush-left

style and double-spaced throughout the entire document.

 Additional spacing should not be used between headings and

paragraphs.

Font Type and
Size

 APA font options include the following:
o Times New Roman, size 12
o Calibri, size 11
o Arial, size 11
o Lucida Sans Unicode, size 10
o Georgia, size 11
o Computer Modern, size 10

Paragraph
Indention

 All papers typed in APA format require the first line of each

paragraph to be indented .5”.

 Pressing the Tab button on the keyboard automatically indents the

text .5”.

For additional information, please see the Writing Center’s Formatting Formal Assignments Tutorial.

http://columbiasouthern.adobeconnect.com/formattingformalassignment7/

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 13

Steps for document formatting

Formatting Steps

Title Page

NOTE: The title page of the document can be thought of as the paper’s first

impression. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the format

required by APA.

1. The title of the paper (in bold) should be centered on the page and

followed by a single space. Then, also centered, list the student’s

name, the name of the university, the course, the name of the

instructor, and the due date.

Abstract

NOTE: All papers at CSU do not require an abstract. Please consult the

course syllabus or professor for specifications about this.

1. The abstract tells the audience why they should care about the

presented topic.

2. It provides the methods that will be utilized in order to get the

results.

3. The word “Abstract” will be listed, centered and bold, one inch from

the top of the page as the heading for the abstract.

4. The abstract itself should be flush left and should not be indented.

5. The abstract should be an accurate and concise reflection of the

document’s content.

6. Typically, the abstract should only be one paragraph (150-250

words) in length, with no direct quotations, and be on a page of its

own directly after the title page.

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 14

Formatting Steps

Headings 1. Headings are titles of different sections of a formal written

assignment.

2. They can be used to add structure, organize ideas, and tell the

reader what content to expect.

3. The following headings should be used when required:

For additional information, please see the Writing Center’s Level Headings Tutorial.

http://columbiasouthern.adobeconnect.com/levelheadings7/

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 15

Formatting Steps

References

Page

NOTE: At the end of each APA document, there should be a references page

containing the sources used within the paper.

 Every reference cited in-text should be listed on the references

page(s), and every reference listed on the references page(s) should

be cited in the in-text.

 The exceptions to this are personal communications and secondary

sources.

 With secondary sources, only the original source should be cited on

the reference page.

 References are of the utmost importance, as they allow the reader to

access the sources cited in-text, and they enable the author of the

document to give credit where credit is due.

 The references should contain accurate information, as well as proper

punctuation and spelling.

 References will accompany the conclusion of any APA document.

 For each reference listed, there must be at least one corresponding in-

text citation in the document.

 All margins should be one inch.

 The word “References” should be used as the heading, and it should

be centered and bold.

 Double spacing should be used.

 With the exception of the first line of each reference, all lines are

indented .5”. This is called a hanging indention.

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 16

Specific formatting steps for documents

Software Click the following icons to access formatting.

MS Word 2016

MS Word Office 365

MS Word for Mac

MS Word Online

Pages for Mac 2019

Google Docs

http://www.columbiasouthern.edu/downloads/pdf/success/apa-guide/google-docs-formatting-guide.aspx

http://www.columbiasouthern.edu/downloads/pdf/success/apa-guide/microsoft-word-2016-formatting-updated.aspx

http://www.columbiasouthern.edu/downloads/pdf/success/apa-guide/ms-word-office-365-formatting.aspx

http://www.columbiasouthern.edu/downloads/pdf/success/apa-guide/ms-word-for-mac-formatting.aspx

http://www.columbiasouthern.edu/downloads/pdf/success/apa-guide/ms-word-online-formatting.aspx

http://www.columbiasouthern.edu/downloads/pdf/success/apa-guide/pages-2019-mac-formatting.aspx

2020 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY] 17

Library Resources and Services for CSU Students

The CSU Library supports the CSU community with access to information and research

assistance. The online collection contains resources chosen to support the programs of study at

Columbia Southern University. Library resources such as journal articles or ebooks can be

accessed at any time through the library website.

The library resources include:

• Online databases that contain a wide variety of resources including journal, magazine,

and newspaper articles.

• A collection of over 180,000 online books in eBook Academic Collection.

• Electronic journal subscriptions in specialized fields of study.

• Video tutorials and research guides designed by CSU librarians.

Contact a librarian when you need to do the following:

• Brainstorm appropriate research strategies such as determining keywords for your

topic.

• Navigate library databases for journal articles and other library resources to support

your assignments.

• Locate and obtain specific articles or other resources assigned in your courses.

• Limit your search by article type (such as peer-reviewed), date of publication, or article

length.

The CSU Library is staffed by professional librarians …

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