Hello, I only need an Introduction to a research proposal. Our experiment is about effects of conformity on formation of false memory. In our introduction literature needs to be mentioned(citation) I will add the literature for you , but if you find something more appropriate , you can also add it. Our professor wants introduction to start more general then to narrow it down to our research , it’s originality and why after so many experiments on it , we have decided to do this.
False memory formation
According to Cherry (2020), False memory is a fake or skewed recollection of an occurrence. Cherry (2020) adds that these recollections may be completely false and fictitious. They can, in some situations, include truthful elements that have been corrupted by information interference or other memory disturbances (Cherry, 2020). Cherry (2020) mentions that people also think about memory as a video recording, with absolute precision, transparency, and clarity in recording and preserving anything that happens. Memory, in fact, is very likely to be fallacious. It’s important to clarify that false memory isn’t simply memory errors. Although we are both vulnerable to memory fallibility, false memory is more than a mere error; it requires a degree of certainty in the memory’s validity (Cherry, 2020). Cherry further explains that from time to time, everybody suffers memory errors, false memories are special as they reflect a different perception of something that has not necessarily happened. False memory isn’t simply about when one combines or forgets things; rather about when one remembers things that he/she has never experienced (Cherry, 2020). False memory occurs due to factors that influence it such as misinformation. We are particularly susceptible to the power of suggestion. Similar to our proposed way of testing the effects of conformity on false memory formation; Wright et al. (2000) second study; questions if discussing an event with someone else can cause formation of non-existing details. Earlier studies showed that an individual’s confidence in their event reporting can be altered after hearing others reports (Luus & Wells, 1994). This suggests that in the case of having another person’s input it greatly influences the memory of the individual as he/she falls into a level of conforming due to doubt
The misinformation effect is witnessed in the occurrence of false memory reporting in which s different details than that of the original event witnessed is narrated by the individual (Zawadzka et al., 2016). A study done by Wright, Self, & Justice (2000) demonstrates through 2 experiments, that the individual’s memory report can be affected when an eventual information is delivered by someone else. Meaning that the memory recalling report of a person is affected by the medium of having someone else giving the information. In the first experiment, feeding an individual misinformation decreased the accuracy of the memory report of the particular event (Wright, Self, & Justice,2000). They further mention that this accuracy is increased when presented with accurate information of the event. The second experiment tested the compliance of the participants when shown identical crime scenes, however part of the group was shown accomplice with the thief while the other part didn’t (Wright et al.,2000). The researchers found out that the first memory reports of the participants were accurate depictions of the information. However, after discussing what they saw with someone else of the other group (who was shown the same crime but in a variant sequence) most of them conformed to what was discussed (Wright et al.,2000). To clarify this further, the person from the other group was shown the same crime but in a bit of a variant sequence, this variation caused the other participant to confirm what was being said and influenced the memory of the event.
Individual conformity and confidence
According to Wright et al. (2000), the individual confidence levels affected the conformity level of the group. Thus, the more confident one was able to convince the other with the chain of details he/she said. This emphasizes on the role of individuality in the nature of conformity. It was found that the direction of participant’s conformity can be predicted by their confidence (Wright et al.,2000). Thus, even accurate information given, the misinformation played a big role into conformity of the participants. In a study by Jaeger, Lauris, Selmeczy, and Dobbins (as cited in Zawadzka et al.,2016) found that, for the trials where the individuals have low confidence in and wouldn’t be able to respond to it on their own; they rely on the outside cues and sources given to them. As their response will be merely of chance, people usually don’t risk being seen as ignorant about something.
Post event information PEI
It is suggested that such an effect arises from being asked biased questions of the particular event or situation (Wright et al.,2000). This is especially evident in the eyewitness testimonies studies like that of Loftus and Palmer (as cited in Wright et al.,2000) where they have shown that an individual’s memory can be altered by how the question is asked. According to Wright et al. (2000), PEI is also seen in the occasion of redescribing the event. The other way that PEI is encountered is when some other person presents it (Wright et al.,2000). The authors suggest that this is a commonly way in which PEI happens.
Understanding the nature of conformity
Unsurprisingly by consequence, a lot of memory conformity researches like ours, focus on the memory errors. Conformity can be defined as the change in the behaviors of a person, even though he does not agree with the group, to go along with the group (lumen waymaker, n.d). The majority group’s influence on a person’s behavior or judgment is called the Asch effect (lumen waymaker, n. d). Lumenwaymaker (n.d) states that, there are important factors that influence the conformity of an individual; the majority group size, another dissenter’s (disagree-er) presence, the privacy or publicity of the responses. There are 2 types of social influences, normative and informational. The normative social influence is when people are conforming to the majority group in order to get accepted and liked by the group (lumen waymaker, n.d). On the other hand, informational social influence is when people are conforming due to a more intellectual reliance as it is believed that the group has the correct information and is more competent (lumen waymaker, n.d). Moreover lumen waymaker (n.d) says that this happens particularly when the task given to the individual is ambiguous. Defined by Gabbert et al. (2004), Memory conformity is when the individual’s memory of an event or information is influenced by what is reported by others. The authors further imply that memory conformity is considered as a memory error because of the social pressure and the cognitive processes. According to Zawadzka et al. (2016), memory conformity research about recognition shows that when an individual’s own responding ability is at luck, then they rely on external social signals to direct their memory responses. Memory conformity occurs when another person witnessed the same event and had a different or similar version of the events. As mentioned by Zawadzka et al. (2016), memory conformity occurs when recalling the original event is influenced by the memory reporting of someone else’s narrative of the same event they witnessed. A memory conformity research explains why individuals might prefer to rely on others’ memory reports; it was found that conformation to other’s memory decisions may have effects that are beneficial for the performance of the memory (Zawadzka et al.,2016).
Memory formation (Cognitive)
It is often asked, how do these memories form? Originally,The information from our surrounding events is processed and registered in the human mind through a dynamic process with the help of factors such as our vision, hearing, tasting, smelling and touching. With the help of this process, individuals can make sense of their experiences and put the puzzle pieces into place . As stated by Thomson (2020), the brain hosts 3 types of memory, sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Sensory memories are conducted by sensory organs can either be a visual information, a taste, an olfactory input, something that we touched or something that we heard (Thomson, 2020). The author indicated that the input that is coming from our senses only lasts for milliseconds. If this type of information has been adhered to, it will transition to the second stage that is the short term memory (Thomson, 2020). The author subsequently added that the short term memory upholds up to 7 information at a time soon after that forgetting starts to take place where the continuous repetition of the same information will automatically transition them into long term memory.
The way research will go (just to give you a hint) : The Informed consent will be given to the participants and preserved after the ratification (Appendix A). The research will be administered in 6 stages: meeting the confederates, watching a 1-minute video, discussion with the confederates, taking a multiple-choice survey and at least debriefing. In the first stage our participants will come together with our confederates. In the second stage the participant will watch the video, a specific scene from gossip girl, which will be displayed to the participants (Appendix B). In the third stage the confederates and participants will be discussing the content of the video with misinformation given from the confederates about what was seen in the video. In the fourth stage in order to assist the effects of misinformation and conformity on false memory, the participants will take the multiple-choice survey constructed using survey monkey (Appendix C). Finally, the participant will be debriefed (Appendix D).