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Complete 1-8. Min 100 word each answer cite your sources min of 3. due 1/10

by | Jun 5, 2022 | fresh

1.According to the characteristics of life discussed in the course, a rock is not considered life.  Choose one characteristic of life to defend why a rock is not life.

2.Describe an experiment that evaluates the impact of the drug Remdesivir on shortening the length of hospital stay for patients with COVID-19 infection. Define the independent variable, dependent variable and controls you put in your investigation.
 
3.Compare how ionic, non-polar covalent and polar covalent bonds differ from each other. Be sure to include the following terms in your comparison: electronegativity, stability and polarity.

4.For question number 3, give an example of a compound formed by each of the type of bonds listed. Make sure to give a description of why the electron arrangement involved in each compound results in the compound being classified as ionic, non-polar covalent or polar covalent.

5. Solution A has a pH of 4.2 while Solution B has a pH of 7.2 How much more acidic is Solution A than B? Which of these two solutions would be compatible with the environment of our cells. Explain.

6.Why is carbon the building block of life? Describe the chemical characteristics of carbon that make it our unique building block.

7.Name the four macromolecules present in all living organisms and tell one function of each type. Which macromolecules are found in COVID-19?

8.What was the special type of macromolecule was discussed in Unit 2 attend that was a form of protein? Discuss why shape is important in their function.

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Book Team

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http://www.kendallhunt.com

DeDication

For my wife, Amy

For my children, Justina and Konrad

For my father, Tobias

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v

chapter 1 Welcome to Biology! 1

Unit 1 that’s Life… 35
chapter 2 Chemistry Comes Alive 37

chapter 3 The Cell As a City 73

chapter 4 Energy Drives Life 117

Unit 2 is it all in the Genes? 151
chapter 5 Molecular Genetics 153

chapter 6 Inheriting Genes 191

Unit 3 We are not alone! 233
chapter 7 Evolution Gives our Biodiversity 235

chapter 8 Before Plants and Animals: Viruses, Bacteria,
Protists, and Fungi 267

chapter 9 Getting to Land: The Incredible Plants 307

chapter 10 Moving on Land and in the Sea: Animal Diversity 339

Unit 4 the Dynamic animal Body 379
chapter 11 Animal Organization 381

chapter 12 Nutrition and Digestion 421

chapter 13 The Heart Lung Machine: Circulation and Respiration 467

chapter 14 Regulation: Nervous, Musculoskeletal, and Endocrine Systems 509

Brief contents

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vi Brief Contents

chapter 15 A War against the Enemy – Skin’s Defenses
and the Immune Attack 567

chapter 16 Urogenital Functions in Maintaining Continuity 607

Unit 5 a small hole sinks a Big ship – our fragile ecosystem 649
chapter 17 Population Dynamics and Communities that Form 651

chapter 18 Ecosystems and Biomes 681

chapter 19 Biosphere: Life Links to Earth 715

Unit 6 Biology and society 747
chapter 20 The Evolution of Social Behavior: Sociobiology 749

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vii

Preface xxiii

Acknowledgements xxxi

About the Author xxxiii

1. Welcome to Biology! 1
Check In 2
The Case of the Nonpaying Tenant 2
Check Up Section 3
Getting to Know Biology 3
What Is Life? 5
Order in a Universe of Chaos 9

Organizing Biodiversity: Hierarchy of Life 9
Taxonomy: The Science of Classification 11

Asking Hard Questions 17
The Development of Evolutionary Thinking 17

Buffon and the Founding of Descent with Modification 17
Fossil Record 19
Changes and Catastrophes 20
Inheriting Acquired Traits 20
Darwin’s Voyage: Natural Selection 21
Evolution and Economic Systems 22

Scientific Thinking 23
Scientific Literacy 23
Induction/Deduction 25
Hypothesis Testing 25
Experimentation 25
Data Analysis 26
Math Gives Biology Power: Statistics 26
Results and Discussion 27

Summary 29
Check Out 29

contents

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viii Contents

Unit 1 that’s Life… 35

2. chemistry comes alive 37
Check In 38
The Case of the Mysterious Killer: A 用硝酸处理; 硝化 Nightmare 38
Check Up Section 39
Atoms and Elements that Make Up Life 39

Elements 40
Atoms and Subatomic Particles 40

Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment 42
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass 42
Ions 43
Isotopes 43
Exposure to Radiation 45

The Elements of Living Systems 46
Substances Combine to Form Complex Systems 46

From Atoms to Molecules 46
Valence Electrons: How Matter Is Combined? 47
Factors Influencing Chemical Reactions 48
Type of Chemical Bonds 49

Covalent Bonds 49
Polar Covalent Bonds 49
Ionic Bonds 50
Hydrogen Bonds 50
The Importance of Water 50

Acids and Bases 52
Why Carbon? 55

Macromolecules 56
Building Up and Breaking Down Macromolecules 56

Carbohydrates 56
Lipids 58
Triglycerides 59
Phospholipids 60
Steroids 60
Proteins 61
Enzymes 63
Nucleic acids 64

Summary 66
Check Out 66

3. the cell as a city 73
Check In 74
The Case of the Meddling Houseguest:

A Friendship Divided 74

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Contents ix

Check Up Section 75
Culture, Biology, and Social Stratification 75
Exploring the Cell 77

The Microscope 77
Cell Theory 80
Types of Cells 81
The Role of Inheritance 86
Endosymbiosis 87

Cell Architecture: The Cell As a City 90
Plasma Membrane: The “Flexible” Border Patrol 91

Walls of the City 93
Cytoskeleton: The City Scaffolds 93
Nucleus: A City’s City Hall 95
Ribosomes, the City’s Factory 95
Endoplasmic Reticulum: A City’s Subway 96
Golgi Apparatus: A City’s Processing Plant 97
Lysosomes: A City’s Police Officer 98
Vacuoles: A City’s Warehouse 99
Plastids: The Cell City’s Paint Shops 100
Cell Junctions: The City’s Bridges 100
Cell Shape and Size 101
The Moving Crew: Rules and Procedures are City Law 102

Passive Transport 103
Osmosis: A Special Case of Diffusion 104
Special Cases in Osmosis 105
Passive Transport with a Helper 106
Active Transport 107
Bulk Transport: A Bigger Moving Van 107

Summary 110
Check Out 110

4. energy Drives Life 117
Check In 118
The Case of a White Pine Memory 118
Check Up Section 119
Discovering Energy Exchange 119
Rules for Energy Exchange: Energy Laws 121
Photosynthesis: Building Up Molecules of Life 124

Chloroplasts: Where the Action Takes Place 124
What Is Light? 124

Pigments 126
The Light Reactions 126

The water-splitting photosystem 128
The NADPH-producing photosystem 129

How is Sugar Made? 130
Some Like it Hot 131

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x Contents

Cellular Respiration: Breaking It All Down 132
Step 1: Glycolysis, the Upfront Investment 132
Step 2: Moving Money 134

The Energy Shuttle 134
Step 3: Breaking Bonds and Giving Credit 134

The Krebs Cycle 134
Step 4: Cash is King – Getting Money Exchanged 135

Electron Transport Chain 135
Bioprocessing: Where does the Cash Get Used? 139

Beer, Wine, and Muscle Pain 141
Anaerobic respiration 141
Fermentation 141

Alcohol and Cellular Respiration: Is it OK for
Me to Drink Heavily Just in College? 142

Summary 144
Check Out 144

Unit 2 is it all in the Genes? 151

5. Molecular Genetics 153
Check In 154
The Case of Out-of-Place Color 154
Early Ideas about Genetics 154
Check Up Section 155
DNA As an Inherited Substance 159

The Structure of DNA 159
How Does Eukaryotic DNA Reproduce Itself? 165

Mitosis 165
Molecular Processes during Mitosis 168
Why Go through It All? Prokaryotic Cell Division Is More Simple 170

DNA Is the Universal Language 171
What Do Proteins Do? 172
Gene Expression: How Proteins Are Made 173

Reading the Message: Translation 176
Gene Regulation 179
Errors in Gene Regulation: A Focus on Cancer 182
Summary 183
Check Out 184

6. inheriting Genes 191
Check In 192
The Case of the Vampire Diary 192
Check Up Section 193
Unraveling the Mystery of Inheritance 193

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Contents xi

Mendel’s Laws 195
Law of Dominance 195
Law of Segregation 195
Law of Independent Assortment 196
Testcross 200

Meiosis: How Sex Cells Are Formed 201
The Phases of Meiosis 205

Male and Female Gametes 207
Sex: A Cost–Benefit Analysis 209
Determining Sex 210

Mendelian Traits: Single Gene Characteristics 212
Not So Mendelian Genetics 214

Incomplete Dominance 215
Multiple Alleles 215
Polygenic Inheritance 216
Pleiotropy 218
Tracing Gene Flow in Families: Pedigree Analysis 218

Tracing Gene Flow in Groups: Population Genetics 219
Gene Technology: Solving Problems Using Genetics 222

The Things We’ve Handed Down: Should
We Tamper With Our Genes? 225

Summary 226
Check Out 227

Unit 3 We are not alone! 233

7. evolution Gives our Biodiversity 235
Check In 236
The Case of the Quiet Island 236
Check Up Section 237
What Are the Origins of Life? 237
Natural Selection and Biodiversity 240
Types of Natural Selection 242
Speciation Increases Biodiversity 245
Extinction 246

Extinction and Biodiversity 250
Evidence for Evolution 250

Modern Day Evolution 251
The Fossil Record 252
Homology 253
Molecular Evidence 255
Biogeography 255

Evolutionary Design: There is No One Right Answer 256
Sexual Selection 261

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xii Contents

Summary 261
Check Out 261

8. Before plants and animals: Viruses,
Bacteria, protists, and fungi 267
Check In 268
The Case of the First Rabies Survivor 268
Check Up Section 237
Discovering Pathogens and Ways to Treat Them 269
Viruses: To Live or Not to Live . . .  272

Features 272
Size of viruses 273

Viruses: The Internal Terrorist 275
Some Interesting Viruses 277

Herpes Virus 277
Rhabdovirus 278
Rhinovirus 278
Myxovirus 278
Papillomavirus 279
Oncovirus 280
Retrovirus 281

Prokaryotes: The Little Things in Life 282
Features 282
Shapes, Sizes, and Types 285
Prokaryote Nutrition 287
Bacterial Reproduction 288
Prokaryote Diversity 289

Archaebacteria 289
The Misfit Kingdom: Protista 293

Classification 294
Algae 294
Protozoans 296
Slime Molds 297

A Favorite Fungus 298
Features and Types 298

Summary 301
Check Out 301

9. Getting to Land: the incredible plants 307
Check In 308
The Case of the Wet Village 308
Check Up Section 309
The Village’s Move to Land: A History 309

Evidence for Green-Algae Ancestry 311

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Contents xiii

What are Plants? 312
Plant Structure Refinements to Help Them Live on Land 312

Divisions of Plants 314
Bryophytes 314
Tracheophytes 316
Seedless Plants 316
Seed Plants 316
Gymnosperms 317
Angiosperms 318
Flowers, Fruit, and Plant Reproduction 319
Monocots and Dicots 323

Plant Tissues 324
Plant Growth 326
Transport of Water and Nutrients in Plants 327
Plant Responses to the Environment 330

Hormones and Tropisms 330
Plant Defenses 332

Summary 332
Check Out 333

10. Moving on Land and in the sea: animal Diversity 339
Check In 340
The Case of the Homey Homeotherm 340
Check Up Section 341
Unity and Diversity of Animals 341
Four Ways to Classify Animals 344

Specialized Cells 344
Symmetry 344
Molting 344
Body Cavity Formation 345

The Major Phyla 345
Porifera: The Scattered Sponges 345
Cnidarians: Creatures with an Open Cavity 347

Jellyfish 349
Sea anemones 350
Hydras 350
Corals 350

Worms 351
Flatworms 351
Roundworms 352
Segmented Worms 353

Mollusks 353
Arthropods 355

Arachnids 356

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xiv Contents

Crustaceans 357
Insects 358

Echinoderms 360
Chordates 361

Subphyla: Lancelets and Tunicates 361
Vertebrates 362

Fish 362
Amphibians, the First on Dry Land 364
Vertebrates: Reptiles, More Efficient on Land 365
Vertebrates: Birds, the Other Reptile 367
Vertebrates: Mammals, Homeotherms That

Thrive on Land and in the Sea 368
Human Evolution 369

Summary 372
Check Out 372

Unit 4 the Dynamic animal Body 379

11. animal organization 381
Check In 382
The Case of a Saved Star 382
Check Up Section 383
Orientation to the Human Body 383
Complementarity 386
Homeostasis Is Vital for Carrying Out Life Functions 388

Negative Feedback 389
Positive Feedback 390
Systems of Homeostasis: Interplay between Endocrine and Nervous

Controls 393
Discovery of Homeostasis 393

The Major Types of Tissues 395
Epithelial 396

Simple Epithelial Tissues 399
Stratified Epithelial Tissue 399

Connective Tissue: An Overview 400
Types of Connective Tissue 401

Muscle 403
Nervous 404

The Language of Anatomy 405
Animal Organization 405
Surface Regions 406
Anatomical Position 408
Directional Terms 408
Body Planes: Imaginary Lines on the Human Body 410
The Abdominopelvic Regions 410

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Contents xv

Organ Systems 411
Summary 415
Check Out 415

12. nutrition and Digestion 421
Check In 422
The Case of the Sweet Breath Date 422
Check Up Section 423
Eating Disorders 423

Anorexia and Bulimia 423
The Obesity Epidemic 424
Why Is Obesity Rising? 426

Nutrients 427
The Micronutrients 427
Minerals 431
Water 433

Macronutrients 434
Proteins 435
Lipids 435
Carbohydrates 437

How Is Weight Gained and Lost?: Food, Energy,
Metabolism, and Weight 440
Energy Is measured in Calories 440
Basal Metabolic Rate 441

The Digestive System: How Humans
Break Down and Absorb Food 442
The Alimentary Canal: A Tour of the Digestive System 442
Digestion 443

Mouth 445
Esophagus 446
Stomach 449
Small Intestine 451
Large Intestine 456

Common Diseases of the Digestive System 458
Heartburn 458

Ulcers and Stomach Cancer 458
Colon Cancer 459

Summary 460
Check Out 460

13. the heart Lung Machine:
circulation and respiration 467
Check In 468
The Case of his Daughter’s Heart 468

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xvi Contents

Check Up Section 469
Blood: Life’s Force 469

What is Blood? 470
Why Blood? 473

Cardiovascular System: Heart and Vessels 476
Heart 476
Movement of Blood in the Heart and Vessels 477
Heart Beats: Electricity Activity 479
Diseases of the Cardiovascular System 480
Heart Attack: Myocardial Infarction 480
Arteriosclerosis 481
Heart Valve Disease 482
Cardiovascular Disease: Treatment Progress 483

Blood Vessels 483
Blood Pressure 484

The Respiratory System 487
What Is Respiration? 487
Anatomy of the Respiratory System 489
Exchange in the Lungs 491
Lung Compliance 494
Gas Transport in Blood 494

Diseases of the Respiratory System 495
Respiratory Acidosis 495
The Bends 496
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 496
Altitude Sickness 497
Lung Cancer 497
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 499
Controls of Heart and Lung Actions 499

Summary 501
Check Out 502

14. regulation: nervous, Musculoskeletal,
and endocrine systems 509
Check In 510
The Case of the Burning Arm 510
Check Up Section 511
The Nervous System 511

Regulation 511
Pain 511
Nerves 513
Organization of the Nervous System 516
Do Nerves Use Electricity? 517
Nerve Impulses 517
Neurotransmitters 518

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Contents xvii

Special Senses 520
Gustation 521
Olfaction 524
Vision 525
Changing Light into Nerve Impulses 526
Hearing 527
Touch 529

The Brain 530
The Muscular System 535

Characteristics of Muscles 535
Muscle Cell Organization 536
Sliding Filament Theory 536
Rigor Mortis 537
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers 537

Skeletal System 542
Skeletons 542
Functions of Bones 542
Morphology of Bones 542
The Human Skeleton 543
Bone Remodeling and Disease 549

Endocrine System 551
Glands and Basics 551
Hormones Regulate Homeostasis 554

Calcium and Bones 554
Blood Sugar and Diabetes 554
Metabolism 555
Control atop the Kidneys 556
Pineal Gland 557
Reproduction 558
Pheromones 558
Pain and Paracrine glands 559

Summary 560
Check Out 560

15. a War against the enemy – skin’s
Defenses and the immune attack 567
Check In 568
The Case of the Recurring Chemistry Nightmare 568
Check Up Section 569
The Immune System’s War 569
Physical Barriers: First Line of Defense 570

Border Patrol: The Skin and Mucous Membranes 570
The Border’s Construction: Skin Structure and Function 572
The Outside Border: Epidermis 573
The Inside Border: Dermis and Hypodermis 573
The Role of the Border: Skin Functions 576

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xviii Contents

Malfunctions of the Border: Skin and Disease 578
Internal Borders: Stomach and Respiratory Tract Defenses 579

Nonspecific Immunity: The Second Line of Defense 579
The Start of Warfare: Inflammation 580
The Tanks: Cells of the Immune System 581
Neutrophils 581
Macrophages 581
Lymphocytes 583
Chemical Warfare 583

Specific Immunity: The Third Line of Defense 584
Rebuilding after the War: Regeneration of Tissues 589
Preventing Future Attacks: Acquired Immunity 592
Defense Stations: The Lymphatic System 594
Malfunctions in our Immune Defenses 597

Our Immune System Attacks its own Troops:
Autoimmune Disease 597

Our Immune System Overreacts to Terror: Allergies 598
Spies and Corruption of our Immune Defenses 598

Summary 600
Check Out 601

16. Urogenital functions in Maintaining continuity 607
Check In 608
The Case of the Stone Baby 608
Check Up Section 609
The Urinary System 609

Regulating Water Balance 610
Kidneys 611
Functions of the Kidneys 612
Special Cells of the Kidneys: Nephrons 613
The Kidney has a Three-Step Process to Make Urine 615
Urine Indicates a Person’s Health 616
Excretion is Expensive 617
Why Uric Acid? 618
Controlling Kidney Functions 619
Malfunctions of the Kidneys 619

Reproduction: An Introduction 620
Types: Sexual and Asexual 620
External and Internal Fertilization 622

Male Reproductive System 623
Male Structures 623
Tracing a Sperm’s Travel 625
Making Semen 625

Female Reproduction 626
Female Structures 626

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Contents xix

Tracing an Egg’s Travel 628
External Structures: Outside the Cervix 629
Hormones of Female Reproduction 630
Menarche and Menopause 631
What Happens After an Egg Meets Sperm? 632

Fertilization 632
Embryology 632

Stages of Pregnancy 634
First Trimester 634
Second Trimester 634
Third Trimester 636

Birth and After 636
Malfunctions of the Reproduction System 638

Males Cancers 638
Prostate Cancer 638
Testicular Cancer 638
Penile Cancer 639

Inflammations in Male Organs 639
Infertility 639
Contraception 640
Female Cancers 640

Summary 643
Check Out 643

Unit 5 a small hole sinks a Big ship –
our fragile ecosystem 649

17. population Dynamics and
communities that form 651
Check In 652
The Case of the Terrible Toads 652
Check Up Section 653
Ecology is based on Studying Populations 653

Order in a Population 653
Population Demographics 655
Population as a Unit of Study 655

Population Growth 656
Human Population Structure 657

Survivorship Curves and Life History Strategies 660
Characteristics of Communities 663

Roles 663
Interactions within Communities 664

Competition 664
Predator–Prey Relationships 665

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xx Contents

Defenses Evolve 666
Physical Prey Defenses 667

Mechanical defenses 667
Camouflage 667
Warning Coloration 667

Behavioral Prey Defenses 668
Group Behavior 668
Alarm Call 668
Plants and Herbivory 669
Symbiosis 670

Summary 674
Check Out 674

18. ecosystems and Biomes 681
Check In 682
The Case of the Hitchhiker 682
Check Up Section 683
Major Biomes of the World 684

What Are Biomes? 684
Topography Affects Land Areas 685

A Drive through the Biomes 688
Terrestrial Biomes 688
Aquatic Biomes 698
Freshwater Biomes 698
Estuaries 700
Marine Biomes 701

Ecosystems 702
Ecosystems Make Up Biomes 702
Energy Flow through Ecosystems 702
Energy Pyramids: Not Cutting Out the Middle Man 704
Vegetarians Cut Out the Middle Man 705
Ecosystem Disturbance and Ecological Succession:

Communities Change over Time 706
Summary 708
Check Out 708

19. Biosphere: Life Links to earth 715
Check In 716
The Case of the Big Blast 716
Check Up Section 717
The Earth, the Sun, and Atmosphere 717

The Earth’s Boundaries for Life 717
Atmosphere: A Layer of Protection 718
Solar Radiation: Heat from the Sun 719

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Contents xxi

Seasonal Changes in Temperature 719
Global Atmospheric Circulation Affects Climate 720
Winds: Movement Under Pressure 721

Hydrosphere: Global Transport and Climate Control 723
The Earth’s Waters 723
Ocean Circulation 723
Ocean–Atmospheric Interactions: El Nino 724

Biogeochemical Cycles 725
Water Cycle 726
Carbon Cycle 728
Greenhouse Effect and Global Climate Change 729
Nitrogen Cycle 730
Eutrophication 732
Phosphorous Cycle 732

Human Influences on the Biosphere 733
Deforestation 733
Engineering of Waterways 734

Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers 734
Three Gorges Dam 735

Pollution 736
Bioaccumulation/Biomagnification 737
Ozone 739

Summary 740
Check Out 741

Unit 6 Biology and society 747

20. the evolution of social Behavior: sociobiology 749
Check In 750
The Case of the Nuclear Ant Hill 750
Check Up Section 751
Defining Sociobiology 751

Animal Behavior 751
Types of Behaviors 753
Learning 753

Behaviorism 754
Imprinting 754
Habituation 755
Classical Conditioning 755
Operant Conditioning 756
Insight 757

Cognitivism 758
Sociobiology and Society 758

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Aggression 760
Human and Animal Kindness 760
Kin Selection 761
What about Helping in Unrelated Organisms? 762
Debate on the Nature of Animal Society 763
Group Cooperation vs. Selfish Genes 764

Summary 766
Check Out 766

Glossary 773

Index 821

xxii Contents

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xxiii

preface

The purpose of Essential Biology is to improve biological literacy and advance the importance of scientific thinking. This textbook grew out of 20 years of science teaching. It applies learning strategies that work in the classroom by weaving bio-
logical themes alongside stories and social applications for understanding. My central
goals for this textbook are to motivate students to look at science in a passionate way. In
a sense to appreciate Aristotle’s view that “in all things of nature there is something of
the marvelous.” This textbook seeks a new way of approaching biology by incorporating
stories, social themes, and integrating non-science areas to augment student interest.
The textbook is intended to enhance teaching methods by bringing social applications
of biology to each unit and to each student. It retains the rigor of the traditional college
biology curriculum. Its pedagogy uses many different techniques to motivate students:

• How? The textbook uses instructional methods that foster active student partic-
ipation in the lecture. Each chapter ends with a set of discussion questions that
stimulate classroom conversations and span all levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. A
“Biology and Society Corner” assessment section for each chapter leads students
into an application of the content to their lives and to the societies around the
world. It touches upon historical and philosophical ideas threaded alongside rig-
orous content. Simple and clear language is important, but an appeal to the socio-
logical (e.g. bioethical, medical, and practical) underpinnings of biology drives
student motivation. Through my teaching, I found that explaining the subject is
only part of its passion. An equally important aspect of working with undergrad-
uates is to make the content come alive through tapping into the societal parts
of biology that integrate content into other disciplines and student interests. Stu-
dents do not live in a science vacuum, where the world is one of internally moti-
vated, empirical hypothesis testing. Instead, they live in a society and they have
interests besides basic science fact-knowing. Through tapping into that real world
of experiences, this textbook asks the reader to commit to the most important
aspect of a textbook – a student’s desire to keep on learning. I begin each chapter
with a story to introduce the content and make a paradoxical and provocative
application to familiar societal encounters. Then, the reader is shown how to think
scientifically.

Each chapter anchors the content briefly in its historical roots within the
science community, showing how biology and scientists work together to create
knowledge. This models scientific thinking. Knowledge presented is clear and
organized, as well as embedded in practical applications, sociological–ethical–
legal dilemmas, literary cases, and medically related and provocative reflection
on issues.

For example, molecular genetics is not merely described and defined, but
the content is surrounded within a case of skin color discrimination in another
culture different from our own. That theme is treated through the chapter until it

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xxiv Preface

concludes with readers applying their newly learned content knowledge with the
thematic issues. Each chapter, as in each stage of a play, has a clear beginning,
middle, and end to captivate the reader at different junctures. The text uses this
approach by adding specific sections to touch the reader at strategic points in the
writing to get them to want to read and reflect more.

Many within the incoming cohort of first-year college students are academ-
ically underprepared and/or unfocused for entry into the field of study. They
require a book that cleverly motivates them. The starter course for such programs
is introductory college biology, generally for non-majors. Textbooks that are the-
matically non-specific and not engaging to non-major students usually define
these courses. Instead, this textbook particularly directs the reader, and thus the
introductory biology courses, to highlight the importance of biology within other
areas of knowing. The textbooks works through using an approach that taps the
varied interests of the non-major – with historical and social issues, and literary
and health-related applications infused throughout the chapters. Although the
textbook is intended for all non-majors college biology courses, it will partic-
ularly appeal to pre-allied health students by tapping into the societally based
content that medical professionals are concerned with.

• New Strategies: As a Ph.D.-level researcher who studies the tenuous transition
between secondary and post-secondary biology programs and a professor for 20
years in the General Biology-to-Human Anatomy and Physiology sequence, I see
a real need for such a textbook. The new product will better prepare and harness
the energy of this non-major cohort to prepare them to become scientifically liter-
ate adults in society. Such students are often bored and unengaged with post-sec-
ondary general biology textbooks and courses that do not address their unique
interests. The new textbook will:
• Use language and applications, clever and clear to understand in a style and

format particularly aligned in a societally applied approach.
• Engage readers in case studies and critical thinking applications and assess-

ment required for scientific literacy in a modern society.
• Employ and guide students’ study strategies for learning general biology con-

tent and applications.
• Retain the breadth and rigor of general biology course content.

• Enhance Classroom Conversation: Instructors using this textbook, both online
and in the traditional classroom, can expect their students to become more engaged
in cooperative learning as they apply the social themes of each story starting the
chapters. Students will follow the story throughout the chapters to reflect contin-
uously on the content material. Each discussion will tap higher order reasoning
skills in helping students understand biology and its place within society.

• Why? Because: student motivation equals academic results. To illustrate, in my
classroom and in my books, instead of merely describing the endosymbiotic the-
ory of eukaryotic development, I relate it to a story about how life could be if we
judge people based on the health of their mitochondrial DNA; and I discuss its
importance in mitochondrial division and muscle building.

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Preface xxv

Figure I.5 Four ways to organize information. Use any of these methods at the end of each chapter to
structure your thoughts and put them onto paper. A blank box is provided at the end of each chapter titled
“concept” maps for your use for this purpose. This text is meant to be used with an active style of learning
employed for each chapter. Research shows that if you can put all of the information from the chapter on
one page, you have mastery of the material. From Biological Perspectives, 3rd ed by BSCS.

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xxvi Preface

thinking Like a scientist
The book shows the reader how to think like a scientist. Throughout the book, provoc-
ative biology examples are provided that guide the reader to consider facts more crit-
ically. The tools to question authority and think scientifically are given by exposing
the reader to cutting-edge biology research, mathematics, biological history, integrated
biology content, bioethical case studies, and science philosophy as roots to science
literacy. In the many textboxes woven through the chapters, the excitement and opti-
mism …

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